Earth’s Moon and missions

Image of Earth's Moon and ISS in between

  • Equatorial radius: 1 737.1 km (0.273 Earths)
  • see Polar radius: 1 736.0 km (0.272 Earths)
  • see Mass: 7.342 x 1022 kg (0.012 300 Earths)
  • Volume: 2.1958 x 1010 km3 (0.020 Earths)
  • cheap tofranil children Mean density: 3.344 g/cm3
  • Surface area: 3.793 x 107 km2 (0.074 Earths)
  • Surface temperature: 100 K – 390 K (-173.15°C to 116.85°C)
  • Surface gravity: 1.62 m/s2 (0.1654 G)
  • Surface pressure: 10-7 Pa (day) to 10-10 Pa (night) (1 picobar to 1 femtobar)
  • Orbital distance: 362 600 km – 405 400 km
  • Orbital period: 27.321 661 days (27 days 7 hours 43 minutes 11.5 seconds)
  • Average orbital speed: 1.022 km/s
  • Escape velocity: 2.38 km/s
  • Axial period: 27.321 661 days
  • Axial tilt: to orbital plane 6.687°, to ecliptic 1.5424°
  • Satellite of: Earth


Successful missions

SpacecraftLaunch dateCarrier rocketOperatorMission
Luna 212 September 1959LunaOKB-1 (Soviet Union)Impactor
Luna 34 October 1959LunaOKB-1 (Soviet Union)Flyby
Ranger 728 July 1964Atlas LV-3 Agena-BNASA (United States)Impactor
Ranger 817 February 1965Atlas LV-3 Agena-BNASA (United States)Impactor
Ranger 921 March 1965Atlas LV-3 Agena-BNASA (United States)Impactor
Zond 318 July 1965MolniyaLavochkin (Soviet Union)Flyby
Luna 931 January 1966Molniya-MLavochkin (Soviet Union)Lander
Luna 1031 March 1966Molniya-MLavochkin (Soviet Union)Orbiter
Surveyor 130 May 1966Atlas LV-3C Centaur-DNASA (United States)Lander
Luna 1222 October 1966Molniya-MLavochkin (Soviet Union)Orbiter
Lunar Orbiter 26 November 1966Atlas SLV-3 Agena-DNASA (United States)Orbiter
Luna 1321 December 1966Molniya-MLavochkin (Soviet Union)Lander
Lunar Orbiter 35 February 1967Atlas SLV-3 Agena-DNASA (United States)Orbiter
Surveyor 317 April 1967Atlas LV-3C Centaur-DNASA (United States)Lander
Lunar Orbiter 44 May 1967Atlas SLV-3 Agena-DNASA (United States)Orbiter
Explorer 3519 July 1967Delta E1NASA (United States)Orbiter
Lunar Orbiter 51 August 1967Atlas SLV-3 Agena-DNASA (United States)Orbiter
Surveyor 58 September 1967Atlas SLV-3C Centar-DNASA (United States)Lander
Surveyor 67 November 1967Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-DNASA (United States)Lander
Surveyor 77 January 1968Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-DNASA (United States)Lander
Luna 146 February 1969Molniya-MLavochkin (Soviet Union)Orbiter
Zond 514 September 1968Proton-K/DLavochkin (Soviet Union)Flyby
Apollo 821 December 1968Saturn VNASA (United States)Manned Orbiter
Apollo 1018 May 1969Saturn VNASA (United States)Manned Orbiter
Apollo 1116 July 1969Saturn VNASA (United States)Manned Orbiter/Lander
Zond 77 August 1969Proton-K/DLavochkin (Soviet Union)Flyby
Apollo 1214 November 1969Saturn VNASA (United States)Manned Orbiter/Lander
Luna 1612 September 1970Proton-K/DLavochkin (Soviet Union)Sample Return
Zond 820 October 1970Proton-K/DLavochkin (Soviet Union)Flyby
Luna 1710 November 1970Proton-K/DLavochkin (Soviet Union)Lander/Rover
Apollo 1431 January 1971Saturn VNASA (United States)Manned Orbiter/Lander
Apollo 1526 July 1971Saturn VNASA (United States)Manned Orbiter/lander/Rover
PFS-126 July 1971Saturn VNASA (United States)Orbiter
Luna 1928 September 1971Proton-K/DLavochkin (Soviet Union)Orbiter
Luna 2014 February 1972Proton-K/DLavochkin (Soviet Union)Sample Return
Apollo 1616 April 1972Saturn VNASA (United States)Manned Orbiter/Lander/Rover
PFS-216 April 1972Saturn VNASA (United States)Orbiter
Apollo 177 December 1972Saturn VNASA (United States)Manned Orbiter/Lander/Rover
Luna 218 January 1973Proton-K/DLavochkin (Soviet Union)Lander/Rover
Explorer 4910 June 1973Delta 1913NASA (United States)Orbiter
Mariner 103 November 1973Delta 1913NASA (United States)Flyby
Luna 2229 May 1974Proton-K/DLavochkin (Soviet Union)Orbiter
Luna 249 August 1976Proton-K/DLavochkin (Soviet Union)Sample Return
Hiten24 January 1990Mu-3S-IIISAS (Japan)Flyby/Orbiter
Clementine25 January 1994Titan II (23)G Star-37FMUSAF/NASA (United States)Orbiter
Lunar Prospector7 January 1998Athena IINASA (United States)Orbiter
SMART-127 September 2003Ariane 5GESA (Europe)Orbiter
Kaguya14 September 2007H-IIA 2022JAXA (Japan)Orbiter
Okina14 September 2007H-IIA 2022JAXA (Japan)Orbiter
Ouna14 September 2007H-IIA 2022JAXA (Japan)Orbiter
Chang'e 124 October 2007Chang Zheng 3ACNSA (PR China)Orbiter
Moon Impact Probe21 October 2008PSLV-XLISRO (India)Impactor
LCROSS18 June 2009Atlas V 401NASA (United States)Impactor
Chang'e 21 October 2010Chang Zheng 3CCNSA (PR China)Orbiter
Ebb10 September 2011Delta II 7920HNASA (United States)Orbiter
Flow10 September 2011Delta II 7920HNASA (United States)Orbiter
LADEE7 September 2013Minotaur VNASA (United States)Orbiter
Chang'e 31 December 2013Chang Zheng 3BCNSA (PR China)Lander/Rover
4M23 October 2014Chang Zheng 3CLuxSpace (Luxembourg)Flyby

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